Original Italian macchiato is a type of coffee prepared by combining a shot of espresso with one or two teaspoons of steamed milk. The milk is only added to enhance the coffee’s flavor; it should never be dominant.
The term literally translates to “spotted” or “stained” and refers to the small amount of milk that is used to stain espresso. Contrary to cappuccino, which is typically consumed in the morning, caffè macchiato was created as an alternative to traditional espresso, and Italians typically consume it in the afternoon.
2. Caffè Americano
The Italian caffè Americano is made by adding hot water to an espresso shot that has already been extracted. The ratio of coffee to water can vary, but the process should dissipate a portion of the crema — the creamy foam that forms on the surface of an espresso. The origins of caffè Americano are obscure, but some believe that American soldiers in Europe popularized it during World War II.
They were not accustomed to the intense flavor of espresso, so they preferred this diluted, milder beverage. American coffee, which may refer to drip or filtered coffee, is not synonymous with Caffè Americano.
3. Flat White
Flat white is a type of coffee that combines a double shot of freshly brewed espresso with milk, which is typically steamed to produce a fine microfoam. A perfect flat white should have an intense coffee flavor, with milk serving as a complement rather than the main component, and the froth on top should be less airy and bubbly than that of a traditional cappuccino or caffè latte.
It is believed that the origin of the flat white dates back to the 1980s, but it remains unclear whether it originated in Australia or New Zealand.
This Greek coffee variety was created in 1957, although the term frappe first appeared in the nineteenth century. It is made by mixing instant coffee, water, and ice together. Typically, the mixture is prepared in a shaker or with a hand mixer, so when the drink is poured into a glass, frothy foam should form on top.
Frapógalo can be made with milk or evaporated milk, in which case it is commonly known as frapógalo, and can be sweetened to taste. This coffee is traditionally served in a tall glass, and three levels of sweetness are available.
5. Turkish Coffee
Extra-finely ground roasted coffee beans are combined with cold water (and, optionally, sugar) in a traditional coffee pot called a cezve or ibrik, and then brewed over low heat until frothy and on the verge of boiling, resulting in a coffee that is uniquely robust and flavorful.
This method of brewing is what distinguishes Turkish coffee from other types of coffee, and it has been attributed to the Turks, hence the name. Turkish coffee, when prepared properly, has a dark color, a thick foam on the surface, a homogeneous consistency, and a robust flavor with bitter notes.
Ristretto, which translates to “restricted” in Italian, is half of an espresso shot. It differs from regular espresso not only in the amount of water used in its preparation, but also in taste, which is less bitter.
When prepared in an espresso machine, the standard amount of finely ground coffee is extracted using only half the water required for traditional espresso. The resulting beverage is more concentrated and has a different composition than standard espresso.
7. Café au lait
Although it is frequently compared to other European variants, particularly the espresso-based Italian caffè latte, this French version of coffee and warmed milk is traditionally prepared with brewed coffee and a French press. In contrast to caffè latte, café au lait typically does not have a layer of foam on top, and the proportions of the ingredients are also different.
Because the terms are used interchangeably in some European countries that do not make a clear distinction between the two types, confusion frequently arises between the two beverages. Also, café au lait can sometimes be made with espresso. Similar combinations of coffee and milk are enjoyed in the majority of European countries.
Cortado is a Spanish beverage that is prepared by pouring a small amount of espresso into a small glass cup and then adding an equal amount of steamed milk to cut the bitterness. The name derives from the Spanish word cortar, which means to cut, and refers to the process of preparation.
The espresso-to-milk ratio imparts a distinctive flavor in which the robustness of the coffee comes through, while steamed milk provides a velvety finish. Cortado is typically consumed in coffee shops because it is not meant to be transported.
Cappuccino is an Italian coffee prepared with espresso and milk foamed with steam. It is believed to have evolved from kapuziner, a coffee-based beverage popular in Austrian coffeehouses during the 18th century. The term cappuccino was first used in Italy in the 1930s, but the drink was topped with whipped cream at the time. The invention of the espresso machine later gave it its current form.
Traditional Italian cappuccino is always served in small, sometimes pre-heated cups, and is made by pulling a single or double shot of espresso and topping it with steamed milk that has been frothed to a light foam. In Italy, the recommended ratio is more foam than liquid.
Espresso is the name of both a coffee beverage and a brewing technique that originated in Italy. The espresso machine, invented in Turin in 1884 by Angelo Moriondo, is now used worldwide to prepare espresso by forcing a small amount of hot water under high pressure through finely ground coffee beans.
The coffee used for espresso is a blend of multiple roasts; as a result of pressurized brewing, the beverage’s flavors are highly concentrated and its texture is thick and almost syrupy. Due to the fact that espresso contains more caffeine than other coffee drinks, it is typically served as a shot.